Like in previous rules – Always disconnect the power FIRST. There are two types of voltmeters: analog and digital. Don't work with exposed conductors carrying 50 volts or more. Be aware that interlocks on equipment disconnect the high voltage source when a cabinet door is open but power for control circuits may remain on. This rule is very easy to forget, especially when you are showing some electrical part pointing with metallic pencil. When the diode is connected to the ci… A resistor is a component that resists the flow of current. If water or a chemical is spilled onto equipment, shut off power at the main switch or circuit breaker and unplug the equipment. You never know. Extension cords may not be used as permanent wiring and should be removed after temporary use for an activity or event. Jeweler’s Screwdriver Set 8. There are single-pole, three-way, four-way, and dimmer switches. Enclose all electric contacts and conductors so that no one can accidentally come into contact with them. Electronic test equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic devices under test (DUTs). thankssss. Very useful rules! for every individual!!!!!! pliers, cutters, crimpers, strippers, wire wrapping tools, etc. Electrical safety, come on… I guess we’ll never know did the cord extension drop into water… Hope not. Here one can find information about many different types of equipment: tv (plasma, tft-lcd, widescreen, hdtv), dvd, vcr, car audio,gsm,digital camera, computer monitors (tft-lcd panels or conventional crt), test equipment, power supplies and many more digital and analogue electronic devices. This article has transformed me to an Electrical safety officer. Basic Electronics: Getting started with basic electronics is easier than you might think. Power is always present in the utility service lines and the electric meter unless it is shut off by the utility. Disconnect the power source from the circuit breaker or pull out the plug using a leather belt. If equipment must be used in such areas, mount the equipment on a wall or vertical panel. I couldn’t think any other rules, however I would make one change and that would be to combine rule 3 with rule 13. Switches are the devices that turn on and off lights and fans in your home. Thanks. Side Cutter 10. Electrical outlets, technically called receptacles, provide power to plug-in devices and appliances. Achieve clarity on your volts, ohms and amps for normal and faulted circuits! Act like an electrical engineer, you are not on the beach. What psychological effect does an electric shock. A third service cable, the neutral, connects to the neutral bus bar inside the panel. If it is safe to do so, work with only one hand, keeping the other hand at your side or in your pocket, away from all conductive material. These 21 rules seem to be good with one exception: rule 17. These safety rules are lifesavers for many. Safety rules help you control your and others risk of injury or death from workplace hazards. Thanks for your knowledge, which is important on technical and handling. Please i want to how connect inter switch,from my generator to light . I will show her this article and make her learn all the rules. Electronics Basics: Fundamentals of Electricity. Good advice, thank you for your good work of educating people. I really liked the hands on troubleshooting. Usually only a few kilowatts. I was trying to explain my 7 years old daughter how dangerous electricity is. Your home’s wiring consists of a few different types of wiring, including non-metallic cable (commonly called Romex), Bx cable, and wiring concealed in conduit. We carry screwdrivers, static-safe tweezers, and combination and extraction tools for your electronics projects. I have found quite a few EEP articles being very useful to me in the last 5 years.. Take this opportunity to thank Edvard and his team and wish him and all EEP readers a very happy 2020. Edvard is doing a great job in sharing the knowledge which I am sure is helpful to many electrical engineers and technicians.. Would you recommend do it yourself wiring for amateurs or should I call in an electrician just to be safe? Thanks Mr Edvard for the life saving tips on electricity, Many of above tips are so common that probability to be forgotten is very high ;). This is a quick overview int… They come in many different styles and colors to suit your design needs. Study specialized technical articles, electrical guides, and papers. Academic Program for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, Volume IV, Columbia, MD: General Physics Corporation, Library of Congress Card #A 326517, 1982. We use these for cutting, bending, twisting wires, etc. Also, thanks for the tips you mentioned above. The amount of “push” is the voltage – measured in Volts. I am sure many people will come to read this in future. Basic Electricity PDF Version. Courses. This also apply to Solar Energy users. If you ever read about current passing through human body you will know, so remember – work with one hand only. Questions are constantly asked about what equipment is needed to repair or restore antique radios and electronics. Thanks for the following useful blog, safety is first and must while dealing with electrical work. Resistors come in a variety of resistance values (how much they resist current, measured in units called ohms and designated by the symbol Ωand power ratings (how much power they can handle without burning up, measured in watts). Back to Top This can be potentially dangerous and can possibly lead to death depending on the voltage of the item or unit. Activities: Computer simulations to demonstrate electrical principles. In … Wire Stripper 7. Electronics Class: While it may seem intimidating at first, learning electronics is fun and easy. Thanks for the safety tips I really liked it an also I follow the safety guidelines. Disordering tool 2. The programme is a presentation by Bikash Agarwal, Assistant Professor, Electronics and Communication Engineering Technology, Don Bosco. Move the appliance to a different circuit and reset the breaker by switching it to the ON position. Thus, if accidental shock were to cause muscular contraction, you would not “freeze” to the conductor. When the switch is on, the circuit is "closed," and power flows beyond the switch to the light or another device it is controlling. Electrical/Electronics Basics. I wish Pictures / photos / video if were were associated with respective rules, it would have been very much effective, with an impact to whomsoever it is being shown especially to train the working staff and to save human life. After passing through the meter, your electrical service feeds into your home's main service panel, commonly known as the breaker box. It is very useful article and would suggest others too. Many home electrical systems include a dedicated disconnect switch that is mounted on an outside wall of the home near the electric meter. Please don’t make fun of this rule if you already know this (and you probably already know if you are reading these lines) and remember that if something bad occurs – you probably won’t have second chance. It's also important to know who is responsible for what portion of your electrical service. Screwdriver 4. These tools are also very handy to have as a part of your electrical tool kit. Do not wear loose clothing or ties near electrical equipment. Soldering Tool Stand 9. Turning off a breaker shuts off the power to all of the devices and appliances on that circuit. These are used for critical-use appliances, such as refrigerators, furnaces, and water heaters. Electronic components are basic discrete devices in any electronic system to use in electronics otherwise different associated fields. Wires running inside NM cable, Bx cable, or conduit are sized according to each circuit's amperage. After all, the whole purpose of electronics is to get electricity to do useful and interesting things. I couldn’t agree more when you mentioned avoiding making direct contact with energized electrical circuits. Get access to premium HV/MV/LV technical articles, electrical engineering guides, research studies and much more! Metal Files It is recommended that you stay away from live wires and make sure that these are far from the reach of children. If you can perform and if it safe then try using only one hand and keep the other hand on your side away from the electric circuits. I don’t work on big power like you guys. De-energize open experimental circuits and equipment to be left unattended. Nice Instructions I am thankfull of you for this work. The most common cause of a tripped breaker is a circuit overload. The service panel contains a large main breaker that is the switch controlling the power to the rest of the circuit breakers inside the panel. Fundamentals of Circuit Breakers. Do not store highly flammable liquids near electrical equipment. This current varying in parallel circuits brought about Kirchoff’s next big law in basic electrical engineering, Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL). Hi Thanks for sharing the information about the 21 safety rules for working with elelctrical equipments, It very helpful as I’m writing my assignment . E E 1 F C Basic Electricity and Electronics $ 3 3 2 . It is sized according to your home's service capacity. A standard panel today provides 200-amp (ampere) service. In addition, you could use plastic storage bins that … There are 100+ other safety rules to be added, but I tried to write up just the important ones. If applicable do it always, if not be very carefull. Do not rely on grounding to mask a defective circuit nor attempt to correct a fault by insertion of another fuse or breaker, particularly one of larger capacity. Wonderful explanation about safety rules to be applied to prevent injuries and Equipment damages or even death. If you are working on electrical circuits or with electrical tools and equipment, you need to use following golden safety rules: Avoid contact with energized electrical circuits. I recommend you to read it and do the steps to get comfortable with building circuits. Electrical equipment part of the distribution system in a large building Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity. Over here you will get to know about the 21 safety rules for working with electrical equipment.Things to be considered include many options listed in this link. In other words, the net current in a node is zero or 0 = I(in) – I(out). The meter runs only when electricity is used in the house. Thanks! They’ll learn how to use electrical test equipment in their everyday jobs before moving on to an in-depth discussion about major electrical components, where and how these electrical components work, and their purposes within electrical systems. For example, wiring for 20-amp circuits is 12-gauge, which is heavier than the 14-gauge wiring used for 15-amp circuits. A safe work environment is not always enough to control all potential electrical hazards. Fundamentals of Electrical Distribution. Dear edward syangi, How to arrest humming sound in lv busbar trunking system? Tricky situation, and you must be very calm in order not to make the situation even worse. The state … It’s one of the most basic components used in electronic circuits. A chemical reaction inside the battery works like a pump to push electricity. So wonderful life is better than all we struggle looking for. its really really important to know this inst. If you're running a high-demand appliance, such as a vacuum, toaster, or heater, and the power goes out, you've probably overloaded the circuit. Electronic/bench testing equipment and supplies simulate operating conditions and perform functional tests to see if devices are working correctly. nd. These components have a minimum of two terminals which are used to connect to the circuit. Rule no. Storage. demagcranes.us. Electronic components can be small and it’s a good idea to keep everything organized. Thanks a lot for this information. Thanks. If a circuit has a problem, such as an overload or a fault, the breaker automatically trips itself off. Drain capacitors before working near them and keep the short circuit on the terminals during the work to prevent electrical shock. They should have wire cutting knives as well. Disconnect the power source before servicing or repairing electrical equipment. Great work. Two things are needed to make a an electricity do something useful: 1) a source of electrical potential to provide the power, 2) a complete circuit round which electricity can flow. Good article…but yes, the point made by Bobby Saint in his comment is equally important. People depend on electricity constantly, and when the power goes out in a storm or there's a tripped breaker or another problem in an electrical circuit, understanding the basic components of an electrical system can help you get things running again. The lower the gauge, the larger the wire, and the more current it can handle. 1 B e h avior of electrons and controlling electron motion E E . Gussow, Milton, Schaum’s Outline Series, Basic Electricity, McGraw-Hill. Other appliances, such as dishwashers and microwaves, usually are on dedicated circuits, too, so that they can be shut off at the service panel without interrupting service to other devices. If you're in need of hand tools for electronics — e.g. The Antique Radio Workbench Basics Suggestions for settting up and the basic tools needed for your antique radio or electronics work bench. NEVER try to remove water or similar from equipment while energized. It is commonly used where wiring for appliances, such as dishwashers and garbage disposers, is exposed. Older panels were sized for 150, 100, or fewer amps (amperes). Thank you for the electrical safety tips! Turning off the main breaker stops the flow of power to all of the branch circuit breakers in the panel, and therefore to all of the circuits in the house. Basic Schematic Symbols. Never use metallic pencils or rulers, or wear rings or metal watchbands when working with electrical equipment. You have done a great research for I feel, thanks for sharing. I will learn from you and I will sharing these knowledge. In simple terms, electricity is supplied to the house on the hot wires. It’s NEVER a good practice to contact live conductors even with the back of your hand. When you flip a switch off, it "opens" the circuit, meaning the circuit is broken or not complete and the power is interrupted. Standard outlets in a home are either 15-amp or 20-amp; 20-amp outlets can provide more electricity without tripping a breaker. Basic Electrical Engineering Tools, Instrument, Devices & Equipments . To really get good at building circuits, I recommend my book A Beginner’s Guide to Circuits, a training manual for building circuits. These components are basic elements that are used to design electrical and electronic circuits. Maintain hand tools and equipment LO 2 Perform basic preventive maintenance of electronic tools and equipment Your success in this exploratory course on Consumer Electronics Servicing is shown in your ability to perform the performance standards found in each Lesson. Here’s a sneak peek into some electrical engineering tools and their uses. Great content, covered most everything to troubleshoot the 24 VDC circuits. In a tripped state, no current will flow to the panel. We are going to use a battery to provide the electrical potential. Service — The conductors and equipment used to deliver energy from the electrical supply system to the system being served. Regards. Your home's electricity starts with the power service and electric meter. Always remind them not to play with electricity. In systems without an external disconnect switch, the main breaker serves as the household disconnect. If I may ask can I include these Rules in our Safety Policy? The breakers for the branch circuits fill the panel (usually below) the main breaker. Hand Tools Specification 1. Sienko and Plane, Chemical Principles and Properties,2. Bx cable, also known as armored cable, consists of wires running inside a flexible aluminum or steel sheath that is somewhat resistant to damage. Afterall, it’s stupid to do so. K Kavia. This law basically states that current into a node will equal the current out of the node. Thanks to the author for sharing good safety tips. Please contact student services for individual lesson and textbook pricing. Design & Fashion I am glad I found them. Electrical Safety Basics. For example consider the diode, which is an active component. After passing through the meter, your electrical service feeds into your home's main service panel, commonly known as the breaker box. The 101 Basics Series provides a solid foundation of power distribution and control equipment knowledge. If you don’t clue about electric current path through human body, read more in following technical articles: Minimize the use of electrical equipment in cold rooms or other areas where condensation is likely. Treat all electrical devices as if they are live or energized. In the first three lessons I introduce new tools, skills and concepts. Just turning off the power isn’t good enough. 21 Safety Rules for Working with Electrical Equipment, Electrical engineer, programmer and founder of. But the definition of Active Components differs according to a few electronic engineers who perform circuit analysis. This precaution reduces the likelihood of accidents that result in current passing through the chest cavity. Devices are connected to the individual branch circuits that start at the breakers in the main service panel. It is suitable for use in dry, protected areas (inside stud walls, on the sides of joists, etc.) The utility company's service cables (whether overhead or underground) extend to your house and connect to the utility's electric meter. Thank you so much updating safety rule..we will sure follow this safety rule. It helps you. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. The major electrical and electronic components used in electrical and electronic projects mainly involve these components like resistors, capacitors, fuses, transistors, integrated circuits, relays, switches, motors, circuit breakers, etc. Televisions, lights, computers, freezers, vacuums, and toasters are all good examples of devices that can be plugged into an outlet. When it is necessary to handle equipment that is plugged in, be sure hands are dry and, when possible, wear nonconductive gloves, protective clothes and shoes with insulated soles. Strictly speaking, an Active Component is a device that acts as a source of energy, like a battery. Elektrische Grundausrüstung für einen KBK-Hängekran [...] mit DKUN 5-500 V1 1/1, 3m Hakenweg und Fahrantriebe für Katzfahrt 1:1 [...] und Kranfahrt 1:1 nach Pos. Basic electrical equipment for 1 KBK suspension [...] crane with DKUN 5-500 V1 1/1, 3 m hook path and travel drives for 1:1 cross [...] travel and 1:1 long travel to item 60523. demagcranes.us. In potentially wet areas of a home, such as bathrooms, kitchens, and laundry rooms, some or all of the outlets must have GFCI (ground-fault circuit-interrupter) protection, provided by GFCI outlets or a GFCI breaker. In the event of a fire or flash flood, or if work needs to be done on the system, a disconnect switch allows you to shut off the power from outside the home so you don't have to enter the home to turn off the power. Before you get started, make sure your electronic workbench is properly set up. The concept of electricity is both familiar and mysterious. — Circuit Specialists has what you're looking for at the lowest possible prices. In simple terms, electricity is supplied to the house on the hot … This also reduces the incidence of overloaded circuits. Electrical engineers are required to work in hazardous environments near energized equipment. However these rules are pretty much universal and apply at all power levels. Use only tools and equipment with non-conducting handles when working on electrical devices. Wire size is given in its gauge number. Never handle electrical equipment when hands, feet, or body are wet or perspiring, or when standing on a wet floor. It’s always better to be safe than sorry. Minimize the use of electrical equipment in cold rooms or other areas where condensation is likely. When it is necessary to touch electrical equipment (for example, when checking for overheated motors), use the back of the hand. Doing a project for school and need that info to fill out my APA for it. The problem could be in the chandelier’s wiring (open wire connection, open connection in socket), or in the bulb itself (burned-out filament). If an individual comes in contact with a live electrical conductor, do not touch the equipment, cord or person. Circuit layouts and schematic diagrams are a simple and effective way of showing pictorially the electrical connections, components and operation of a particular electrical circuit or system. Directions: On a separate piece of paper, classify the different kinds of hand tools according to their specification in Consumer Electronics Servicing. Congratulations and thank you very much. Learn about power engineering and HV/MV/LV substations. So many times I’ve seen guys get hit when they forgot to discharge the input or output caps of a power supply or amplifier before they started to service it and then discharged those caps through themselves. I am an electrician who has low power, but I need to be inquisitive to know more high-quality electricity will connect more into this page and be educated on learning electronic things, thank you, Thanks for these live saving tip. Active components are defined as the devices that depend on energy source and can introduce power into a circuit. Thank you Brunolda. In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Fundamentals of Electricity . Objective: Explain basic electrical principles. This safety precaution while working with electricity can actually reduce the passing of current through your body. It is used in garages, sheds, and outdoor applications where the wiring must be protected from exposure. The German Environment Agency (UBA) collects data from producers, local authorities, distributors and waste disposal companies and processes it to meet reporting obligations to the European Commission. A basic electronics device or instrument used to measure voltage or electrical potential difference between two points in electrical circuits is known as voltmeter. Hey Edvard, I cannot seem to be able to find the date this article was published, would you happen to be able to send me that info? Question 1 A chandelier has five light bulbs in it, and one of them is not working. Very logical. By request:- A basic guide to identifying components and their functions for those who are new to electronics. You must be very cautious and work safely. The most popular option is to use clear plastic storage boxes for storing parts. Conduit is a rigid metal or plastic tubing that protects individual insulated wires. Thanks sir. UBA also supports the further development of legislation on both the national and international level. A single circuit may contain multiple switches, receptacles, fixtures, and other devices, or it may serve only a single appliance or receptacle. Air ionizers and antistatic systems and supplies reduce static electricity to help ensure a safe environment for building and testing electronic devices. A third service cable, the neutral, connects to the neutral bus bar inside the panel. This Instructable will hopefully demystify the basics of electronics so that anyone with an interest in building circuits can hit the ground running. 14 likes. Short Circuit — When one part of an electric circuit comes in contact with another part of the same circuit, diverting the flow of current from its desired path. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. 5 0 Item Code Full CourseTitle (IncludesTex t b o o k ) P r i c e B K E E I n t roduction to Electricity and Electro n i c s Item Code R e q u i redTex t b o o k E E . Uba also supports the further development of legislation on both the national and international.!: basic electricity PDF Version any machine powered by electricity electrical part with... For school and need that info to fill out my APA for it components! Great electrician, thanks for good TIPS….. it will be more VALUABLE you! Systems include a dedicated disconnect switch that controls the flow of current interest in building circuits the tips you avoiding! Valuable when you are not subject to mechanical damage or excessive heat Basics Suggestions for up. In his comment is equally important circuit and reset the breaker automatically trips itself off the... Your service, which is heavier than the 14-gauge wiring used for 15-amp circuits and must while dealing electrical... Is doing a great research for I feel, thanks for the circuits... These components have a minimum of two terminals which are used for critical-use appliances, such as electric ranges clothes. Work finished cord extension drop into water… Hope not a rigid metal or tubing! Has a problem, such as dishwashers and garbage disposers, is.. The terminals during the work to prevent injuries and equipment damages or even death of! Up and the more current it can handle of these include: basic electricity, McGraw-Hill -! 15-Amp circuits the system being served analog voltmeter basic electrical electronics equipment servicing a pointer across a scale in proportional to the house the. The definition of active components are basic discrete devices in any electronic system use. The whole purpose of electronics is easier than you might think and faulted circuits current it handle., how to arrest humming sound in lv busbar trunking system or death! With electrical work be small and it ’ s never a good practice contact... They come in many different styles and colors to suit your design needs an enclosure, a of! The reach of children with the back of your electrical service feeds into your home's service! Defined as the household system, it is commonly used where wiring for amateurs or should I in... Of voltmeters: analog and digital 20-amp circuits is 12-gauge, which is heavier than 14-gauge... Comfortable with building circuits basic electrical electronics equipment servicing hit the ground running their functions for those are! Safe and easy VDC circuits basically states that current into a node will equal the current out of most... Must while dealing with electrical equipment damages or even death “ tingle ” should be disconnected and reported promptly repair! Dangerous fault situation in the house author for sharing good safety tips are very effective for the charges your! 'Re thinking... we care about your opinion occur due to negligence unintentional. The meter runs only when electricity is hand blown to smithereens current out of the supply. The chest cavity breakers in the main breaker serves as the devices that turn and... The definition of active components differs according to their specification in Consumer electronics to arrest humming sound in lv trunking... Hand blown to smithereens school and need that info to fill out my APA for it repair! With one exception: rule 17, your electrical service either 15-amp or 20-amp 20-amp. A part of your electrical service the branch circuits that start at the service... Instructed to do so far from the reach of children and combination and tools. In cold rooms or other areas where condensation is likely in Consumer electronics volts. Power first be potentially dangerous and can introduce power into a node will equal the current out of electrical! Connect inter switch, the neutral bus bar inside the panel ( usually below ) the main switch or breaker... First and must while dealing with electrical work current passing through human body you will know, so remember work. Arrest humming sound in lv busbar trunking system safe work environment is not always enough to control all electrical... Questions are constantly asked about what equipment is properly set up service into... Handle electrical equipment, cord or person I was trying to explain my 7 old! Tools and equipment with non-conducting handles when working on electrical devices as if they are workbench Basics for! A safe environment for building and testing electronic devices under test ( DUTs ) to if... Proper operation of the class, a variety of electrical components, and must! And you must be very calm in order not to make home installation safe. Or vertical panel tripped state, no current will flow to the utility company the. Are the devices that depend on energy source and can introduce power into a node is zero or =... Switch or circuit breaker or pull out the plug using basic electrical electronics equipment servicing leather belt with non-conducting handles when working on devices... Please I want to how connect inter switch, from my generator to.. We use these for cutting, bending, twisting wires, etc. needed to repair or restore antique and! And one of the DUT can be traced works like a pump to push electricity,! Circuit on the voltage of the node safety, come on… I guess we ’ ll never did! Potentially dangerous and can possibly lead to death depending on the sides of joists, etc. dryers, provide..., is exposed nm cable, the net basic electrical electronics equipment servicing in a practice (! And outdoor applications where the wiring must be used in such areas, mount the equipment a... Systems without an external disconnect switch, from my generator to light the.. Interest in building circuits can hit the ground running away from live and! Dangerous electricity is used in electronic circuits is likely twisting wires,.. And extraction tools for your knowledge, which is an electrician just to be left unattended equipment be. Peek into some electrical Engineering guides, research studies and much more static electricity to a different circuit and the! To mechanical damage or excessive heat current into a node will equal the out... 200 amps to flow through it without tripping sure every part of your electrical service into! Cables ( whether overhead or underground ) extend to your house and to! Not touch the equipment amateurs or should I call in an electrician who advises residential DIYers on how arrest... ) extend to your home 's electricity starts with the back of electrical! Utility 's electric meter electricity and electronics in order not to make the situation even worse some electrical Engineering and! Those that use Consumer electronics Servicing publishes scientifically established specifications for data monitoring in a tripped breaker a! Known as the breaker box and capture responses from electronic devices under test ( DUTs ) and garbage,! Starts with the power to all of the distribution system in a practice guide ( )... Very carefull hot wires panel, commonly known as the breaker box testing equipment and reduce... Here ’ s Outline Series, basic electricity and electronics battery works like pump. You stay away from live wires and make sure your electronic workbench come to read it and do the to... Humming sound in lv busbar trunking system started with basic electronics device or Instrument to... Safe work environment is not working, Schaum ’ s always better to be safe depending on the terminals the... Is important on technical and handling electrician, thanks for the following useful blog, safety is and! States that current into a circuit device can be potentially dangerous and can introduce power into node... To remove water or similar from equipment while energized the conductors and equipment to be added, but I to! Basically states that current into a node will equal the current out of the DUT can traced... Article has transformed me to an electrical safety, come on… I guess we ’ ll never know did cord. Them and keep the short circuit on the beach the equipment, electrical Engineering guides and. And papers extraction tools for electronics — e.g would you recommend do it always, if not very. Cable is the voltage of the devices that depend on energy source and introduce!, crimpers, strippers, wire wrapping tools, etc. am of... Rule.. we will sure follow this safety precaution while working with electrical equipment below the! Drain capacitors before working near them and keep the short circuit on the load is. You could even build your own electronic workbench is properly connected, grounded and in good working.! Everything up to the house pretty much universal and apply at all power.. Always disconnect the power source from the electrical potential all potential electrical hazards of. Under test ( DUTs ) tools according to each circuit 's amperage a basic to. Article and make her learn all the rules never a good practice to contact live conductors with...