This community of about 350 chose wives and concubines from Guaraní women. After the death of López, the provisional government issued a proclamation on March 6, 1870, in which it promised to support political liberties, to protect commerce and to promote immigration, but the Provisional government did not last. Accompanied by Domingo Martínez de Irala, Ayolas again sailed upstream until he reached a small bay on the Río Paraguay, which he named Candelaria, the present-day Fuerte Olimpo. Naval infantry battalions armed only with machetes attacked Brazilian ironclads. It also created a two-man executive body with two consuls – Fulgencio Yegros and Francia. So the two currents that eventually led to the Liberal and Colorado Parties began.[20]. [6], The new Jesuit reducciones were constantly threatened by the slave-raiding mamelucos, who survived by capturing natives and selling them as slaves to planters in Brazil. The eastern part of present-day Paraguay was occupied by Guaraní peoples for at least 1,000 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The reducciones, which became quite wealthy, exported goods and supplied Indian armies.[6]. The Guaraní also hoped the Spaniards would lead them against the Incas.[2]. Aside from scattered Mennonite colonies and nomadic Indian tribes, few people lived there. [2] The Guaraní accepted the arrival of Spaniards and looked to them for protection against fiercer neighboring tribes. [19][citation needed]. After President Juan Bautista Gill was assassinated in 1877, Caballero used his power as army commander to guarantee Bareiro's election as president in 1878. López soon became the largest landowner and cattle rancher in the country, amassing a fortune, which he augmented with profits from the state's monopoly on the yerba maté trade. In 2018,Mario Abdo Benítez was elected as his successor. Cabot retraced his route on the Río Paraná and entered the Río Paraguay. Cabeza de Vaca arrived in Asunción after having lived for eight years among the natives of Spanish Florida. The country was surrounded by hostile neighbors, from warlike Chaco tribes to the Argentine Confederation and Empire of Brazil. The Jesuits conceived an autonomous Christian Indian state, to stretch from the Paraguay-Paraná confluence to the coast and back to the Paraná headwaters. Paraguay soon became a colony of mestizos. The emperor also named Mendoza governor of the Governorate of New Andalusia and granted him the right to name his successor. Coming home to backward, poor, xenophobic Paraguay from cosmopolitan, prosperous Buenos Aires was a big shock for the Legionnaires. Francia had pictured himself as the first citizen of a revolutionary state, whereas López used the all-powerful state to enrich himself and his family. He allowed controversies and boundary disputes with Brazil and Argentina to smolder. As a result of its distance from the rest of the empire, Paraguay had little control over important decisions that affected its economy. By the end of October Belgrano's army stopped at Curuzú Cuatiá, where an old border conflict between Corrientes and Yapeyu was solved. Instead of ending the war with a swift victory that might have boosted their political prospects, the Liberals signed a truce that seemed to allow the Bolivians to regroup. In Hanratty, Dannin M. & Sandra W. Meditz. Paraguay declared its independence from Spain on May 15, 1811. By November 1810 the army reached the Paraná River near Apipé island, and there Belgrano took measures to benefit the natives that were living in missions. Lugo was sworn in on August 15, 2008 and impeached in 2012.[35]. The two regional giants had tolerated Paraguayan independence, partly because Paraguay served to check the expansionist tendencies of both opponents. Within a couple of decades, Paraguayan politics had come to a full-circle. [citation needed] Despite fears that the military would not allow the change of government, Senate President Luis González Macchi, a Cubas opponent, was sworn in as president that day. By 1908, the Liberal radicales had overthrown General Ferreira and the cívicos. His 1853 trip to Europe to buy arms was probably the most important experience of his life. The Parana was crossed with several boats on December 19, and a force of 54 Paraguayan soldiers was forced to flee during the battle of Campichuelo. For the Paraguayans, the defeat of Belgrano resulted in independence from the rule of Buenos Aires and was the launching pad for their liberty from the yoke of Spain. The cédula granted colonists the right to elect the governor of Río de la Plata Province either if Mendoza had failed to designate a successor or if a successor had died. [3] The first battles fought were the Battle of Campichuelo and Battle of Campo Maracana, in which Argentinians claimed victory. In 1811, Paraguay gained independence from Spain. Smuggling - geographically favoured by Paraguay's location between Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia - became one of the main sources of income. Led by the exiled dictator Rafael Franco, the revolutionaries were an unlikely coalition of febreristas, Liberals and Communists, united only in their desire to overthrow Moríñigo. In Hanratty & Meditz. [31], On July 1, 2005, the United States reportedly deployed troops and aircraft to the large military airfield of Mariscal Estigarribia as part of a bid to extend control of strategic interests in the Latin American sphere, particularly in Bolivia. Espinola failed in his mission and was quickly chased out of the province. In 2003, Nicanor Duarte was elected and sworn in as president. The highly motivated Paraguayans knew the geography of the Chaco better than the Bolivians and easily infiltrated Bolivian lines, surrounded outposts, and captured supplies. Solano López's conduct laid him open to such charges. When navigation became difficult, Cabot turned back, after having obtained some silver objects that the Indians said came from a land far to the west. He dared not expropriate the properties of foreign landowners, who were mostly Argentines. The new Constitution was based on the 1937 authoritarian Constitution of Brazil's Estado Novo and established a corporativist state. Swamps, hills, rivers and lakes would also force the army to march slowly, making a possible retreat difficult. This victory was Caballero's last, however. Belgrano saw Velazco's army from the Mbaé hill, and despite being greatly outnumbered he ordered the attack anyway, trusting in the moral strength of his soldiers.