The hierarchy ranks the various management strategies from most to least environmentally preferred. See Food: Material-Specific Data. (The numbers in the Recycled, Composted, Combustion with Energy Recovery and Landfilled columns are listed by weight of material* in millions of tons). The only recycling identified for the category of rubber and leather is rubber from tires, which the Agency estimated to be 1.7 million tons in 2018. Currently, EPA has a tool for estimating greenhouse gas reductions resulting from sustainable materials management – the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). Generation of yard trimmings and food waste has increased since 2000. In 2018, the amount of MSW generated was 292.4 million tons. Waste categories with the lowest recovery rate were: Plastics: 19%, due to high proportion sent to landfill; Textiles, leather and rubber: 26%; Hazardous waste: 27%; All plastic types had the worst recovery rates of around 15%. Generation of newspapers has been declining since 2000, and this trend is expected to continue, partly due to decreased page size, but mainly due to the increased digitization of news. UNIDO has been dealing with specific problems of the leather industry since its early years, when the organization operated as the Industrial Development Centre within the United Nations Secretariat in New York. In 2000, it reached 4.74 pounds per person per day and then decreased to 4.69 pounds per person per day in 2005. Check out our Energy Recovery from the Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) page for more information. The total amount of rubber and leather in MSW combusted in 2018 was 2.5 million tons. *Includes material from residential, commercial and institutional sources (except not industrial process waste). The following provides a detailed breakdown of the numbers: Listed here are the recycling or composting rates for three categories of materials, including paper and paperboard, yard trimmings, and food: EPA’s report Sustainable Materials Management: The Road Ahead serves as the foundation for the EPA SMM Program. A dash in the table means that data is not available. The Leather industry in India is consistent in its high export earnings and is among the top 10 foreign exchange earners for India. 1.16 pounds per person per day for recycling. Of the MSW generated, approximately 69 million tons were recycled and 25 million tons were composted. China) 25% Middle east 5% Western Europe 23% South America 11% North and Central America 7% Rest of the world 14% Eastern Europe 2% Leather wastes are produced in various regions world-wide. It also includes environmentally sound waste management through combustion with energy recovery and conversion, as well as landfilling practices that meet current standards or newly emerging waste conversion technologies. The total generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2018 was 292.4 million tons (U.S. short tons, unless specified) or 4.9 pounds per person per day. ... Leather Industry: Environmental Pollution and Mitigation Measures is the result of a one-year survey, study and laboratory tests. Generation rose from 268.7 million tons to 292.4 million tons in 2018, mainly as a result of EPA's inclusion of additional food management pathways. The total MSW recycled was 69 million tons, with paper and paperboard accounting for approximately 67 percent of that amount. The generation rate was 4.9 pounds per person per day in 2018, an 8 percent increase from 2017. Over time, recycling and composting rates have increased from just over 6 percent of MSW generated in 1960 to about 10 percent in 1980, to 16 percent in 1990, to about 29 percent in 2000, and to about 35 percent in 2017. The leather processing industry produces large amounts of solid organic wastes in the form of un-tanned (trimmings , fleshings, splits) and tanned (trimmings, splits and shavings) waste from raw hides and skins, semi-provessed leather, as well as sludge as a result of wastewater treatment. Every leather item you don’t buy mean less toxic waste entering into the environment and perhaps an animal not killed – you’ll save some cash as well. The recommendations and analytical framework under the Road Ahead encourage the consideration of multiple environmental benefits when developing materials management strategies. When calculating the water footprint of leather, it’s important to begin at the beginning with the water used in raising the animals. Food composting was negligible in 1990, rose to 2.2 percent (680,000 tons) in 2000, 5.3 percent (2.1 million tons) in 2015 and 6.3 percent (2.6 million tons) in 2017. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. A typical tannery generate huge amount of waste: Fleshing: 56-60%. Overall, the recycling rate for rubber and leather in MSW was 18.2 percent in 2018. The Leather industry in India accounts for around 12.9% of the world’s leather production of hides/skins and handles a robust annual production of about 3 bn sq. The 6 per cent reduction in the amount of waste generated compared to 2018 is the third yearly reduction since 2017. The generation rate in 1960 was just 2.68 pounds per person per day. The estimates of MMTCO2E are calculated using WARM, and identify not only the environmental benefits of recycling, composting and combustion for energy recovery, but also the benefit of not landfilling materials. This includes the source reduction of wastes before they enter the waste stream and the recovery of generated waste for recycling, composting or other methods. Nienke Hoogvliet transforms salmon skins into beautiful fish-leather furniture to raise awareness about plastic pollution in our oceans. This is especially prominent in small and medium-sized tanneries in developing countries. Image by Sean Gallagher. In 2018, the rate of paper and paperboard recycling was 68.2 percent (46.0 million tons), up from 65.9 percent in 2017 (44.2 million tons), and up from 42.8 percent in 2000. 2 United Nations Alliance on Sustainable Fashion reports the fashion industry employs over 75 million people worldwide. Selected consumer electronics include products such as TVs, VCRs, DVD players, video cameras, stereo systems, telephones and computer equipment. MYTH: Leather is best avoided because of cattle’s impact on the environment. The Leather industry in India holds a significant place in the Indian economy. The global apparel market is valued at 3 trillion dollars, 3,000 billion, and accounts for 2 percent of the world’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 2018 the food composting rate was 4.1 percent (2.6 million tons). The use of old technologies plays a large factor in how hazardous wastewater results in contaminating the environment. This results in the generation of waste with chromium content and is thus considered hazardous by the EPA. 69 million tons of MSW were recycled in 2018, a 2.2 percent increase from the 67.6 million tons recycled in 2015. The recycling and composting rates (as a percentage of generation) of the below materials in MSW has mostly increased over the last 58 years. The rate of yard trimmings composted in 2000 was 51.7 percent . This section discusses rubber and leather in municipal solid waste (MSW). Still have a question about the data? This statistic shows the amount of commercial and industrial waste arisings from the manufacture of textiles, apparel and leather in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2009 to 2012. The energy and GHG benefits of recycling, composting, combustion with energy recovery and landfilling shown in the table below are calculated using the WARM methodology. In 2018, it was about 12 percent. These calculations do not include an additional 24.9 million tons of MSW that could not be addressed in the WARM model (including 17.7 million tons from food waste managed by means outside of the scope of the WARM model). The total MSW composted was 25 million tons. State-wise Total Number of Wards, Collection and Waste Generated under Solid Waste Management in India (As on 31.12.2018) Status of Bio-Medical Waste Management Scenario in India (2018) State-wise Municipal Solid Waste Generation in India (As on 22.08.2017) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that the incidence of leukemia among residents near a tannery in Kentucky was five … The other materials accounted for less than 10 percent each. Please see the EPA Methodology Document for further information on estimating the generation and management of rubber and leather. India, 2013. In 2018, about 146.2 million tons of MSW were landfilled. Although this is down from 6.3 percent in 2017, the tons composted remained the same between 2017 and 2018 (2.6 million tons). In percentage of total MSW generation, recycling (including composting) did not exceed 15 percent until 1990. It is estimated that one head of cattle requires 1,890,000 L of fresh water to raise, approximately 5.5% of which can be attributed to the leather, leading to a water footprint figure of 103,950 L for one hide. Management of MSW continues to be a high priority for state and local governments. This included approximately 22.3 million tons of yard trimmings (more than a five-fold increase since 1990) and 2.6 million tons of food waste (4.1 percent of generation of wasted food). This liquid waste ultimately goes into the water of the Buriganga River and causes immense harm to the fish and other species in water. The recycling rate (including composting) was 32.1 percent in 2018, down from 34.7 percent in 2015. In 2018, 17.7 million tons of food (28.1 percent of generation of wasted food) was managed through animal feed, co-digestion/anaerobic digestion, bio-based materials/biochemical processing, donation, land application and sewer/wastewater treatment. 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